Moringa has a number of agricultural uses as well. The leaves, stems and seed pods can be used as fodder or as forage material for cattle. Studies and field tests by the BIOMASA agricultural research project in Nicaragua have shown that the plant can be readily grown as a field crop and can survive for several years in that environment, allowing repeated harvest of the various parts of the plant from only one planting. Researchers Nikolaus and Gabriele Foidl found that supplementing regular cattle feed with leaves and seed pods from the plant can increase the milk production of cattle by as much as 65 percent. Additionally, cattle that consume the plant as part of their daily diets typically experience increased weight gain; studies have shown as much as 32 percent more daily weight gain for cattle that consume the plant over those that do not. The plant is also useful as a fertilizer for other plants; a study published in the International Journal of Agriculture & Biology in 2010 showed improved germination rates and faster germination in beans, cowpeas and groundnuts. Another study conducted by Makkar and Becker in 1996 showed similar results and increased yields for crops sprayed with a solution including the extract of the Moringa plant. While much research remains to be done, the evidence seems to suggest that, when used in conjunction with the regular regimen of fertilizers and growth stimulants, the quantity and quality of almost any crop can be significantly improved by a treatment of this extract. One of the most common uses of the tree, however, is as a free-range forage plant for cattle and other livestock; because the tree retains its leaves even at the height of the dry season, it is especially suited to provide a year-round food supply for free-range cattle. The high protein content in the plant makes it a favored source of food for livestock; anecdotal reports indicate that cattle often seek out the plant in preference to other types of forage plants in the area. The phytochemicals contained in the oil can also be used to control insect infestations. The study Larvicidal and Repellent Potential of Moringa oleifera against Malarial Vector, Anopheles Stephensi Liston outlined the advantages of this extract against mosquitoes, a major threat to health in various areas of the world because of the diseases transmitted by these insects. The extract was shown to be effective at breaking the transmission vector by repelling the insects from the immediate or surrounding area and killing larva that can spread malaria and other diseases.